Thursday, March 15, 2007

A plough can be swayed sev or kara

"At the time of seasonal agricultural operations, the Sutar is expected to be immediately available to peasants in their fields when implements need to be repaired. The Sutar knows which type of plough is needed, depending upon the nature of the soil to be ploughed and the crops grown. He fashions the farmers' tools according to the famers' variegated needs, asking about the height of the bullocks, the transport constraints, and other requirements. A plough can be swayed sev (vertically downwards) or kara (inclined) - they are so required for two distinct types of ploughing, which need to exert different pressures on the bullocks. When the plough works to the farmer's satisfaction, he manifests his contentment by saying, 'I have got good stuff!' If the plough is badly assembled, the peasant will poke fun at the Sutar calling him a useless person, a pondhya, a derogatory term derived from pondha or pondhya, the bolt of the plough."
('The Mother Earth of the Mawal Peasant: Testimonies from Baban Khandbhor and Prabhakar Ghare)
(p. 273, The Social and the Symbolic, edited by Bernard Bel et al, Sage)

No mechanical equation

"There is no mechanical relationship between growth and capital accumulation, and one cannot specify a necessary rate of investment to sustain a specific rate of growth because capital intensity of production can vary and much also depends on technical progress and the efficiency with which capital is used (productivity growth). India's past experience shows that very effectively; the average capital intensity of production was relatively lower than that in East Asian economies, and TFP growth played a much more significant role than capital accumulation in increasing GDP per worker. Indeed, high rates of capital accumulation without improvements in TFP (total factor productivity) could simply hide a great deal of inefficiency."

(Emerging constraints to sustained high growth)

(p. 77 'India's Long-Term Growth Experience,' by Sadiq Ahmed, Sage)